from Pears Cyclopaedia, 2004-2005 Edition:


"Facism : From the end of medieval times with the opening up of the world, the liberation of the mind and the release of business enterprise, a new spririt arose in Europe exemplified in such movements as the Renaisance, the Reformation, the struggle for democracy, the rise of capitalism, and the Industrial Revolution.

With the rise of these movements there developed a cetain tradition, which, in spite of hindrances and disagreement or failtures, was universally held by both right- and left-wing parties however strongly they might fail to agree on the best means of attaining what was felt to be a universal ideal.

The hardcore of this tradition involved : belief in reason and the possibility of human progress; the essential sanctity and dignity of human life; tolerance of widely different religious and political views; reliance on popular government and the responsibility of the rulers to the ruled; impartial justice and the rule of the law; the desirablility of universal peace.

Facism (is) the negation of every aspect of this tradition and (takes) pride in being so. Emotion (takes) the place of reason, the "immutable, beneficial, and fruitful inequality of classes" and the right of a self-constituted elite to rule them (replaces) universal suffrage because absolute authority "quick, sure, unanimous" lead(s) to action rather than talk. Contrary opinions are not allowed and justice is in the the service of the state; war is desirable to advance the power of the state; and racial inequality made a dogma. Those belonging to the "wrong" religion, political party or race are outside the law. " p J19